Thursday, April 11, 2013

No Boundary Universe

The no boundary Universe

In my book, COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES I quoted Stephen Hawking and Einstein’s musings about a no boundary Universe.
I was flying in my antique 1948 Piper Cub ® plane at four thousand feet looking up at the heavens and thinking how beautiful everything was and how dust clouds form stars when suddenly it hit me. I realized that everything is orbiting in a circle. Even tiny atoms bond together forming mini-gravitational fields orbit around at tremendous speeds. These clump together form larger and larger blobs until you have a planet.
Eventually the planet-sized blobs get big enough to where the gravity is strong enough to maintain fusion. When the next big meteorite hits it ignites it turning it into a star.  After sucking in more fuel pellets and burning for a few billion years it might grow big enough to explode and turn everything back into dust again. The other alternatives are the star will expand into a giant red star or collapse into a white dwarf. After it sucks in a few more million planet-sized, fuel-pellets it could collapse into a black hole with gravity forces strong enough to suck in whole galaxies. This is a little hard for anyone to comprehend but that is the way it seems to work. Once in a while, (every few billion years) after a black hole has sucked in ten to fifteen whole galaxies it explodes releasing and turning all that trapped energy back into dark matter again.
One to two percent of this material turns into new three-dimensional matter that we call atoms.
Dr. Carl Sagan’s book, Cosmos © 1980 by Carl Sagan productions and published by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. --Library of congress cataloging in Publication Data Sagan, Carl 1934-Cosmos.  “...Stars like the sun are born in batches, in great compressed cloud complexes such as the Orion nebula. Seen from the outside, such clouds seem dark and gloomy, but inside, are brilliantly illuminated by the hot newborn stars.  Later the stars wander out of their nursery to seek their fortunes in the Milky Way. Stellar adolescents still surrounded by tufts of glowing nebulosity, residues still are gravitationally attached of their amniotic gas. The Pleiades are a nearby example. As in the families of humans, the maturing stars journey far from home, and the siblings see little of each other. Somewhere in the Galaxy there are stars-perhaps dozens of them-that are the brothers and sisters of the Sun, formed from the same cloud complex, some 5 billion years ago. But we do not know which stars they are. They may, for all we know, be on the other side of the Milky Way.”
Carl Sagan is wrong here because the stars of the Big Dipper are only 75 to 100 light years away and have been identified as brother and sister stars to our sun by size spectral analysis of their elements.
Dr. Fred Bell’s book Rays of Truth Crystals Of light has a diagram of a black hole with a gravitational field that is 300,000 parsecs in diameter capable of sucking in light out to that distance. One Parsec is 3.26 light years or 19.2 trillion miles. Something that is 300,000 parsecs would be 19.2 times this figure which is a little hard for anyone to get a handle on. This unbelievable number is the diameter of the event horizon where nothing escapes yet the core is only three feet in diameter. I don’t know how anybody could determine this because there would be no way to measure it.  Besides, how could a thousand whole galaxies fit into something the size of a washing machine?  If such an object reached its limit where it couldn’t hold any more mass-energy it might explode causing a singularity. If the matter in our section of space was created by such a singularity I can see where astronomers might think the entire universe was created by one giant singularity they dub “The Big Bang.” But, since space is endless I am relatively certain that there have been other singularities out there in the great beyond and that it is an ongoing process.  More recent information on black holes suggests there are thousands in our own Galaxy alone that would account for the background radiation that was the main argument for the Big Bang Theory in the first place.  Three-dimensional matter exists as the lowest entropic gradient. Everything else has more energy therefore it should be easy to tap into these higher energy sources.  Energy always flows to a lower gradient much like water flows down hill.  
Scientists estimate that our Earth collects 100 million tons of space debris per year. The low-end estimate is 5 million tons per year. A Nova TV documentary says that it is only 40,000 tons per year. Given the high-end estimate of planetary creation that is close to 274,000 tons of material added to Earth each day. Much of it burns up in the atmosphere but it still adds over a 100 million tons or so a year to the mass of the earth.
Over a time period of time, say millions of years it is easy to see how the Earth might become much larger in mass and diameter. It all depends on what kind of space debris we are passing through at any given time.
In addition to the above accretion of Earth mass, Dr. Louis A. Frank and Dr. Joseph Nuth III, both NASA employees were given the job of analyzing the millions of 40 ton blobs of water coming to Earth at speeds of 30,000 miles per hour. By using the cameras aboard the geosynchronous orbit satellites located 26 thousand miles above the earth they were able to determine that ten to twenty million of these blobs of water enter Earth’s atmosphere every year. At forty tons each that adds up to quite a bit of mass. Twenty-million times forty tons = 800 million tons per year of incoming water added to earth each year. Given a time period of millions of years, this is enough water to fill an ocean.
Add the 100 million tons of meteorites and dust estimated by the scientists; in all the above paragraphs to the 800 million you get 900 million tons a year. That’s a lot of material arriving on earth each year. Multiply this by 65 mill ion years and you can see where the earth may have grown by one quarter in diameter since the time of the dinosaurs.  Spectral analysis show the blobs to be water or ice however, neither water or ice could exist for long in space unless it was covered with some kind of plastic or metallic skin. Where are the blobs of water coming from and how did they get here? Who is sending them? Or, does the stuff exist naturally in space that we accidentally happen to be traveling through?
The above figures don’t include incoming material from the torrid stream. The Earth may have grown one quarter larger in diameter in the last hundred million years.  Scientists studying the lung capacity of dinosaurs discovered that their lung capacity is one half of what it would take to keep a comparable sized animal alive on earth today. The only explanation for this is that the atmospheric pressure had to have been close to thirty pounds per square inch at the time and possibly it had higher oxygen content. So far, the only explanation for such a massive drop in atmospheric pressure in that time period is that Earth must have increased its diameter by one third through plate tectonics and accretion of incoming debris.
[Readers note* After I wrote the above, I deduced that the layers of limestone and other material deposited during the warm periods between ice ages is carbon taken from the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. The amount of carbon in the material that was deposited during the last 100-million years can be calculated. The photosynthesis that takes place during the warming periods between the ice ages may be the cause of the drop in our atmospheric pressure. A recent article in the December 2007 issue of Astronomy magazine titled: Earth’s Fiery Start mentions: “…the atmospheric pressure when the Earth was formed would have been 100 times higher than it is today and the carbon dioxide was 1000 times more than it is today.” I don’t know if this is bad science to keep us confused or an actual fact? One hundred atmospheres would be a pressure of 1,450 pounds per square inch. I tend to believe that the carbon dioxide level was 1000 times more than it is today because then it would be 33%. [To find out what the atmospheric pressure was in ancient times keep reading!]

Since our sun is so large compared to the earth and its gravitational field being so much stronger than earth, then, it is only logical to assume that it gathers up much more debris than Earth. This can be calculated by comparing mass.  Scientists, estimate that it gathers up billions of tons of fuel pellets every day. If our sun was located in one of the large dust clouds like the Horse Head it would be taking on mass at an even higher rate. Perhaps it would be accumulating planet sized fuel pellets the size of Jupiter ever second.  In the April 2004 issue of Scientific American on pages 63 to 69 is an article titled, The Hidden Members Of Planetary Systems. It has color photographs of stars with gaps in the debris clouds around them. They are saying the gaps are indicative of planets in the area. They say this because there are gaps in the debris of our solar system in the area around larger planets. What more can I say? Planets collect dust and debris and get bigger it’s as simple as that.  Accretion works!
As stars get older their dust goes away because it is sucked up by gravity to become fuel for the star. The larger pieces are sucked into the fiery pit to become fuel pellets for the sun while the smaller dust particles are blown out into space by the solar wind. It is estimated that our sun burns up or looses 4,000,000 tons per second during the process of fusion. It has to be taking in more mass than this otherwise it would burn out.
The asteroids, comets and dust all add to the mass of the planets. The data suggests that most systems evolve in the same way. The amount of dust in the Kuppier belt is unknown but may be 10 times as great as seen by our telescopes. We really don’t know how far out it extends.  If this is true than the Sirius system could have a Kuppier belt that extend out a tenth of a light year which would definitely interfere with our sun’s Kuppier belt. We would definitely see changes in our climate if this is a true.  The data is ambiguous because different groups of researchers argue for planets of different sizes in different paths.
“Various processes besides the gravitational pull of planets could be responsible for some of these features. A number of astronomers argue that all young planetary systems have rings; as planetesimals grow and coalesce into planets, they disrupt the discs, increasing the occurrence of collisions and the rate of dust production. Others argue that rings of dust can spontaneously form at the edges of gaseous disks; the rapid change in gas pressure at the edge slows down dust particles that would otherwise be expelled from the planetary system.”

A prominent West Australian geologist, whose work is internationally recognized, is convinced that the accepted explanation for the devastating Boxing Day tsunami is wrong.
Dr. James Maxlow blames the tsunami on what he says is “the continuous expansion of the earth’s crust under-sea fault movement”. He dismisses the alternative and widely held view that it was caused by compression and subduction in plate tectonics as a myth.
Maxlow says that conventional wisdom is based on a hypothesis that the Earth has maintained a constant size during its geological evolution. His research shows that the size on the Earth 1600-million years ago was little more than on-fifth of its dimensions today and the planet is currently continuing to grow at the rate of 22 millimeters a year.
“Growth like this over millions of years has weakened the Earth” crust causing fractures which lead to natural disasters such as the Asian Tsunami and other seismic events,”” said Dr. Maxlow.
(Source: 26 April 2005; Press Release; Terrella Consultants, Telephone +61 8 9298 8819 Canaveral/launchpad/6520/)

Dr. David R. Ardila, the author of this fine article in Scientific American gives an example of where two star systems may have come close enough to disrupt their Kuppier belts.
“Last year my colleagues and I observed the star HD 141569 using ACS coronagraph on board the Hubbell Space Telescope. Earlier images had shown two rings around this star. Our images revealed long spiral arms of dust, not unlike those seen in spiral galaxies, and suggested that the rings observed earlier are actually fragments of spirals. HD 141569 has two companion stars, and we believe that less than 100,000 years ago the companions passed close to the disk, disrupting and stretching it. This interaction could have created the spirals. Other researchers contend that repeated encounters with the companions have molded the disk. In this way, bodies other than planets may be responsible for some of the debris disks’ characteristics.”
“The debris discs have shown astronomers that stars other than our sun have asteroids and comets-one of the consequences of the planet formation process. This result implies that the solar system fundamentally resembles other systems. On the other hand, even the smallest debris disk detected contains 50 times as much dust as the solar system does. Is that because planets in our solar system have already expelled most planetesimals? Is it because the sun started with an unusual small disk? Or is it because observers have not yet used instruments sensitive enough to uncover true data analogues to our solar system?”
I agree that astronomers need to piece together a detailed and consistent picture of how planets form around stars of different masses and how the planets evolve over time. Future observations by Hubble, Spitzer and ground-based observatories will help answer these questions. “We may then know how exceptional our solar system is among all possible planetary systems.” Is our sun older or younger than the average? Was it put out here in a relatively uncluttered, region of space out of harms way so to speak to protect it inhabitants?
The reason why astronomers don’t see the correlation between the reduced Co2 levels and the periodic extinctions of life here on Earth is they re not trained to do so. Their education is compartmentalized into one facet of the whole scheme of things so that they fail to see the correlation.  Astronomers are exceptionally good at determining the stellar mechanics and how the Universe works but when it comes to admitting the existence of torsional fields, electric fields, diatoms and photosynthesis releasing free oxygen they just don’t get the correlation.

Below is Sirius A and B, the object responsible for creating mos all of the coal, oil and limestone on Earth. The little Sirius B not much bigger than the Earth puts out more than 100 times the ultraviolet light than our sun. You can't drive a car without a white dwarf star. It ised to be 6 solar masses before it exploded shrinking down to 1.5 solar masses. It is the size of Earth but has more gravity/mass than our sun. We are in orbit around these objects. You have to look at the mass/gravity/velocity data in my book to understand this. We are heading toward it right now at 7.5 kilometers per second.

Brad and I are not limited by our education in this department because we have none. Brad is a mathematical genius and it is just about impossible to argue with him. You might as well give in and admit he is right from the get go. In my case having commercial fished for crab, salmon and halibut over forty years I developed a system of navigation to find my crab pots which also works in space. I have the equivalent knowledge of several PhDs’ in marine science.  During all this time I made it a point to read everything I could about the ocean, biology, specie migration routs, plankton blooms and feeding patterns of everything. I attended three different universities and have taken many college level courses over forty years. My knowledge of nature and how things work enables me to see things that people with compartmentalized education tend to overlook.


“Twenty years ago the infrared Astronomical satellite (IRAS), expecting to obtain routine calibration observations of the star Vega, discovered evidence of a debris disc around it.”
By the early 1990s further analysis of IRAS data had suggested the presence of debris disks around 100 or so stars.  Most of the disks however, could not be seen directly; their presence had to be deduced indirectly. Only since the late 1990s have ground-based and orbiting observatories provided astronomers with detailed images of a handful of disks. The latest contributions have come from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and instrument installed on the Hubble space Telescope in 2002 and the Spitzer Space Telescope, the infrared counterpart to Hubble, launched in August 2003.”
What the recent images show is wonderfully unexpected. Far from appearing featureless, some disks look like gigantic versions of the rings of Saturn and some contain large blobs, holes and spirals. Some of these features may be caused by unseen, giant-planets. After all, the presence of a debris disk implies the existence of asteroids or comets, which are byproducts of the planet formation process-either, fragments of larger objects that were destroyed by collisions.  In the case of “planetesimals,” the building blocks of planets, some of which never coalesced to make larger bodies. In our solar system, asteroids and comets coexist with rocky and giant planets, and perhaps the same is true for other planetary systems as well.”    
The study of planet formation has been frustrating because astronomers are not sure their theories apply to planetary systems other than our own. By observing debris discs around stars of different masses and ages it helps to place our solar system into context.
IRAS only functioned 10 months but it completed a survey of the sky in the, mid and far-infrared light spectrums with wavelengths between 12 and 100 microns. It is impossible to detect this spectrum from the ground because the earth’s atmosphere blocks most of it.
Infrared radiation is rather cold from 50 to 100 degrees Kelvin. The infrared radiation is produced when cosmic rays strike dust and larger particles around a star. It was thought that some stars would be invisible to IRAS because their surface temperature is in thousands of Kelvins however they were proven wrong. It was discovered that some stars ‘shine brightly’ at these wavelengths and many emit infrared light hundreds of times brighter than normal stars. The infrared suggests the presence of dust around the star.
The starlight (and cosmic rays) heats the material which in turn emits the infrared light. This produces a bump in the stellar spectrum. The dust cannot be left over from their formation so it has to be transient, as in our own solar system. It has to be coming from collisions and evaporations of unseen material.
To be more accurate astronomers observe the area surrounding distant stars in the X-ray spectrum because when cosmic rays from the star itself strike invisible objects in space they back scatter x-rays.   
IRAS did not have enough resolution to detect most of the disks directly. All except for of the observations appear to be featureless points of light however the brightness of these points is a crude way to estimate their size. The accretion disks appear to be from 100 to 1000 astronomical-units which are between 20 to 200 times larger than the disc around our sun.      
During the winter of 2004 astronomers apparently discovered the two largest planetoids beyond Pluto. Called 2003 VB12 (tentatively named Sedna) and 2004 DW, they assume the top spot held by Quaoar, found in 2002. The new objects add to a growing list of large bodies found at the fringes of the solar system; Sedna’s extreme location in particular provides evidence for a hypothesized distant collection of icy bodies called the Oort cloud. Astronomers expect to find five to 10 more in the next couple of years, some perhaps even bigger than Pluto.
The diameter in meters of Pluto is 2,300. The diameter of Pluto’s moon Charon is 1,300 meters. Ouaor is 1,250 meters. 2004 DW is up to 1,600 meters and Sedna is 1,700 meters. The distance to the sun in billions of kilometers: Pluto 4.4 to 7.4. 2004 DW is 4.6 to 7 and Sedna distance varies from 13 to 135 billion kilometers from the sun.
The time to orbit the sun is 248 years for 2004 DW and 10,500 years for Sedna. ---Source: California Institute of Technology.
The Kuppier belt of our solar system is approximately one light year in diameter.
Besides the two billion or so tons of material arriving on earth each year I discovered that there are two 25-day periods each year where the earth picks up 100 times the usual amount of debris. There is a large doughnut of material orbiting perpendicular to the orbital plane of the planets. We pass through this mess twice each year and some of the meteors are large enough to wipe out a major city plunging us into a mini ice age.

In recent years researchers have seen the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and YOKOH images that suggest that the sun is capable of spewing forth, if you will, great clumps of molten iron. These images are usually filtered for iron and are at times very impressive, the objects reaching sizes of anywhere from moon size down to bus size. Simply because of the vastness of space have we so far avoided being hit by one of these intermittent deadly objects? It may also be due to the charge differential of the earth’s magnetosphere and the solar environment - this is supposition on our part. Regardless the objects are there and must be considered a threat. Especially since their obvious density is great and the speed at which they travel is quite intense.

Hermes said, “As above so below.” This book will add to our understanding of time and the significance of the daily time system we inherited from the Sumerians, Egyptians, and ancient Americans. “They left us a 24-hour period system, with two 12-hour periods of ascending (AM) and descending light (PM), During the AM hours the earth receives an expanding amount of photons until the zenith point (noon at equinox), then PM brings increasing darkness.  Is this just coincidence or is this a microcosm of the 24,000-year cycle with its ascending and descending yugas of 12,000 years each? This might turn out to be he best evidence yet of an ancient knowledge of precession and the great year-and it was on our wrists the whole time!” --Walter Crittenden Binary Sun Riddle
Apparently several think tanks are working to correlate the movement of star systems with various earth changes. At the binary Research institute we accept the modest lunisolar forces and have found fundamental flaws in the current explanation of precessions, whereas a binary model seems to solve many long-standing problems. For example: it has been found that the earth does not precess relative to objects within the solar system (like the Moon or Perseis comet debris) but it does precess relative to fixed stars outside the solar system. This is very hard to explain if precession is caused by anything other than a binary model that seems to easily solve problems with an uneven distribution of angular momentum within the solar system. It also provides a logical reason for observed non-random, long-cycle comet paths and the sheer edge of the Kuppier Belt.
Other scientists are coming to similar conclusions.  Karl and Uwe Homman of the Sirius Research Group have been saying for several years that current lunisolar precession theory does not work, and they make compelling arguments that any rotation of the earth (as lunisolar theory requires) does not show up in time and motion equivalency measurements. And Carlo Santagata or Italy, taking a dynamicist’s approach shows us current precession theory fails to account for known relativistic effects. Most recently, work has been done applying Kepler’s law to a binary motion, to show that if the binary orbit were slightly elliptical, as virtually all orbits are, then precession, now at a rate of 25,770 years, (for both ascending and descending phases combined would average out about 24,000 years if the apoapsis (further point of distance) between the two stars was reached at the depths of the dark ages, about A. D. 500.  This would show that the average precession rate agrees perfectly with the ancient Vedic interpretation of the Yugas.  According to Michael S. Hizer, author of The Faced and Cuneiform scholar, the Sumerians said the celestial object “Nibiru” drove precession. If the binary theory is proven it could give meaning to these statements and justify the Great Year myths and folklore from around the world. Finally, there would be a reason, other than a wobbling earth, to cause the changing environment on our planet. No doubt there are great catastrophes, such as comet and asteroid impacts and probably huge tectonic movements or possibly even pole shifts that befall the earth from time to time and interrupt the history of man. And maybe even extraterrestrial affected life here on earth.
“None of these explain why we had a progressively declining civilization for thousands of years before the dark ages, or why intelligence and technology generally seem to be advancing so smartly since the beginning of the Renaissance. A binary system---our sun traveling through space taking the Earth on a long elliptical journey where it might possibly be influenced by cosmic radiation, negative ions, different electromagnetic fields or even increasing or decreasing amounts of a certain spectrums of light, could very well affect man’s consciousness on a vast scale and explain the myths that come to us from almost every ancient culture. The ancient stone monuments in Iraq that have two suns in the sky and a Moon is evidence that in ancient times we were closer to another star system! BELOW IS A CME.

There are several scientists now investigating EM field effects on man and subtle energies here on earth. The book, Ley Lines and Earth Energies, by David Cowan, looks at some of these issues.
Slowly but surely lost knowledge is being resurrected. We lost our ancient knowledge of geometry, of plotting eclipses and of the first two motions of the earth, but they have since been rediscovered. We found the Babylon battery, which dates to more than 2000 years before Volta, and we found the Greek computer of Antikythera, also dating 2400 years before the invention of the modern calculator. At the present time archeologists are finding complete cities under water off the coast of India, Cuba, Japan, and near Italy in the Meditarian Sea. Ancient underwater cities are popping up all over the world.  Nevertheless, most still think of history as linear and most believe we know much more than the ancients in spite of all the problems of modern society. We are all suffering from a form of planetary amnesia.
If the Great Year cycle is true, perhaps we are close to rediscovering how to once again live in harmony with the earth and maybe each other. Consider what a golden age might have been like, when science and spirituality worked together, when we revered the heavens and only built permanent structures lined up with the motions of the earth and the stars. Where the shamans, and saints and sages and yogis, and enlightened demigods just making up stories of a fantasized higher age? Or did these higher ages actually exist? Where they people like you and me who achieved their full human potential? Is the legend of giant beings known as the Anunnaki with twice our cranial capacity ruling the Earth true? We will find out more about this in volume two!
“Knowledge of a binary motion of our sun with other stars and its connection to the precession of the Equinox may be the next major discovery. If it’s confirmed, it might finally lead us to an understanding of whom and what we really were, and more importantly, what we have the potential to become.”-
--Walter Cruttenden is a Director of the Binary Research Institute, a non-profit think-tank specializing in archeoastronomy and solar system theory.

The above article was taken from my book, COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES. If you like a copy please order from one of the following::,,,

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