Friday, December 23, 2011


                            CARBON ENERGY SCIENCE
©By Henry Kroll
                        From my book, COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES
            The bulk of the energy consumed on this planet is still generated by the burning of carbon. Where did all the carbon come from, you ask? 
            After our sun left its birthplace in Orion Earth and Mars went into the Huronian Glaciation where mile deep sheets of ice covered the single ocean and there was five-mile deep inc on the single continent known as Pangaea. All of the carbon at the core of the Earth came from the dust clouds in Orion. The iron in your blood, the calcium in your bones and the other elements that make up our reality mostly came from Orion however some of it is space dust.
            At that time about 700-million years ago Earth had a high pressure carbon dioxide atmosphere of around 750 pounds per square inch. The atmosphere extended three thousand miles above the planet. There was no way for sunlight to get through such an atmosphere to make the plankton bloom in the oceans to release free oxygen. A billion years is a long time to drift in the cold of space. {SIRIUS A and little SIRIUS B below.}


         {You got to understand that it's difficult to get good pictures of Sirius B because the light is invisible and glass lenses filter out UV.} 

Our solar  system eventually drifted between the the two giant stars Procyon and Sirius. These giant two-solar-mass, stars may have been swapped into out galaxy during one of many past galactic collisions. Sirius B used to be 6 solar masses before it became a white dwarf ejecting 3.5 solar masses of silicon and iron in the neighborhood. Earth collected a lot of that iron dust which bound up the free oxygen as soon as it was released by plants. We were much closer to Sirius A and little Sirius B and Sirius B with 1.5 solar masses (more gravity than our Sun) came around, grabbed hold of our Sun and put it into a nice tight orbit around Sirius A.

We became part of the Sirius System for the next 750-million years. Sirius B puts out more than 100 times the Ultraviolet Light of our sun in the invisible 350 to 400 nano meter wave length. Plants, however like this light. 

Sirius B is the only thing out there capable of penetrating a 3,000-mile deep atmosphere. The reason I wrote the huge book was to make people understand where coal, oil, gas and limestone come from. When you are driving down the road most of the energy that makes your car move came from Sirius B!
{You can read all about the history of Earth in my book, COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES.}

           Earth was half as big as it is today. There was one ocean and one continent. This CO2 atmosphere continuously being replenished by volcanoes but over time due to the yearly accretion of 40-thousand tons of space dust and expansion of the mid ocean volcanic rifts over hundreds of million years the Earth expanded to its present size. It was this process of expansion that the atmospheric pressure was reduced by half.
            The other half of Earth’s high pressure atmosphere was used up by photosynthesis and laid down as col, oil and limestone. Where did the 20.8 % oxygen atmosphere come from? During the 80-million year Carboniferous Age 400-million years ago the Sun was in a much closer orbit to another group of stars that increased the average Earth temperature to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. One of those stars puts out more than 100 times the ultraviolet light of our sun above the range of human sight. Earth had incoming ultraviolet light 24 hours a day. In a few short months diatoms filled up the oceans to depths of 30,000 feet deep or more. Diatoms have the ability to multiply eight times in 24 hours given enough CO2, warm temperatures and 24-hours of light.
Most people don’t know what diatoms are. They are the little calcium carbonate creatures they use to filter your drinking water and fill your cat litter box. They evolved different shapes to survive at different depths in the oceans to take advantage of the different wave lengths of UV light. Most large oil fields are ancient meteor impacts that fused the hydrogen in the water with the carbon to make hydrocarbons. If you were to read my book COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES you will discover that some other sources of oil is made from the subduction of continental plates that melt the limestone sheets which are composed of calcium carbonate. Then you have the shale oil which is still made of carbonate ocean sediments. 

    After John D. Rockefeller discovered oil on the beach in Quait in the 1920’s and his company Standard Oil started making billions, other government-subsidized companies like Sinclair Oil (sin clear) and Winsor Oil (now British Petroleum) got on the band wagon. That’s when we became energy slaves.
Practically every war since was fought over oil plus other resource like lithium or gold. Religion is just a cover. The reason they left FREEDOM OF RELIGION in the constitution in the first place was so they could pit one fanatical group against another. Wake up people!
 All wars are rich men wars. They manipulate nations to create wars to make them richer. They sell arms to both sides of the conflict. They have their banks loan money to both sides to buy the arms from their factories thereby putting both nations in debt. When the war is over they step in to rebuild pretending to be charitable good Samaritans but they take the gold oil and drugs as compensation. It’s known as the GOD trade.


The reason I wrote COSMOLOGICAL ICE AGES was to enlighten people as to where the energy came from that make their cars go down the road. By plotting our course through space I discovered the light source that created the coal, oil and limestone. It may be alright for humanity to release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It is plant food and CO2 is a trace gas amounting to only .033% of our atmosphere. It’s a trace gas necessary to feed people yet our government wants to use your tax dollars to pump it underground. You can’t grow food without it. Go figure! How dumb is that? Wake up people!
Ninety-eight percent of the atmosphere on this planet is gone. Originally when Earth came out of the billion-year Huronian Glaciation with a 750 PSI atmosphere. Now it is down to 14.5 PSI at sea level. 
We lost ½ the oxygen-producing plankton in the oceans. Two thirds of the oxygen-producing rain forests have been cut down and burned to make charcoal while the rich corporations want to keep us using up the oxygen by burning things forever.
Back in the 1950's our government created the mega farms to out-produce the Communists using fertilizer made from natural gas and mechanized agriculture that uses oil. Now most all our soil is depleted of minerals. Poor farming methods caused half our topsoil to blown away in the Dust Bowl washed down rivers into the oceans. Half the fish in the oceans  are gone. God gave us dominion over the planet. What’s he going to do when he comes back to find out what we have done?
Where do we go from here? Hundreds of millions of people died fighting over oil. Don’t forget our brave soldiers who so willingly gave their lives in these wars.  
Below is a picture of the Grayling platform blowout in Cook Inlet. The got the men off safely with a helicopter. By some miracle it never caught fire. It blew ocean water up over 1000 feet for an entire week then it subsided to about 500 feet above the rig for over a month. How much gas was wasted is anybody's guess--probably enough to light up New York City for a couple years.

Seemingly timed to coincide both with Earth Day and President Obama's proposed expansion of corporate access to U.S. waters for offshore oil drilling, the April 20 explosion of the Transocean oil rig Deepwater Horizon has exposed how risky offshore oil drilling can be, particularly in deep water in the absence of effective regulation. The sinking of the oil rig April 22 (Earth Day) led to the deaths of 11 oil rig workers – not the first BP safety violations – and could lead to the contamination of wide swaths of the Gulf Coast, or even, because of the loop current (map), large swaths of Florida, the Florida Keys and the entire East Coast.
Originally, authorities said the broken well was spilling 1,000 barrels a day. Then the Gulf oil spill was upgraded to 5,000 barrels a day. But independent scientists have said there could be 5-10 times as much oil spilling from the well, and BP's only successful attempt at mitigation is capturing just 1,000 barrels a day. The oil slick on the surface is bigger than Connecticut, but the spill at other depths is likely far larger, and threatens marine life throughout the ocean food chain. If independent estimates are correct, the spill is already larger than the Exxon Valdez

[The Exxon Valdez spill was 22 million gallons not 11.]


The Usumacinta is a mat-supported jack-up based on the Bethlehem JU-200-MC design. It was delivered in 1982 by Bethlehem Steel in Singapore and is currently owned by Perforadora Central of Mexico. In October 2007, the Usumacinta was contracted to drill at PEMEX's Kab-101 platform in the Bay of Campeche. The Kab-101 platform is a light production Sea Pony type platform, installed by PEMEX in 1994, which had two wells producing a daily output of around 5700 bbls oil and 700,000 cubic feet of natural gas. The Usumacinta was contracted to complete drilling work on a third well, named Kab-103, when it collided with the Kab-101 platform and ruptured the Kab-101's production tree.
Storm Collision
On Sunday, 21 October 2007, the Usumacinta was brought into position alongside the Kab-101 platform to finish drilling the Kab-103 well. By Tuesday, 23 October, a cold weather front passed through the Gulf of Mexico bringing storm winds of 130km/hr with waves of 6-8m. The adverse weather conditions caused oscillating movements of Usumacinta jack-up from around 1200 hours on the 23 October. These movements caused the cantilever deck of the Usumacinta to strike the top of the production valve tree on the Kab-101 platform, resulting in a leak of oil and gas. At 1420 hours, the subsurface safety valves of wells 101 and 121 were closed by PEMEX personnel, but the valves were unable to seal completely allowing the continued leaking of oil and gas. At around 1535 hours on 23 October, the 81 personnel on the Usumacinta were evacuated by lifeboat, with the ship Morrison Tide providing fire support. Rough seas hampered the rescue operation and appear to have caused the break-up of at least one liferaft.
Well control personnel were despatched to the Kab-101, with operations delayed by further bad weather and H2S release. Well control operations commenced with attempts to inject heavy mud followed by cement. Operations were again delayed on 13 November when a spark initiated by on-going work caused a fire to break out. The fire was extinguished the following day on 14 November at 2350 hours. A second fire broke out on 20 November, causing the collapse of the Usumacinta's derrick and major damage to the cantilever and connecting bridge. The fire was extinguished the same day with no injuries.
Several phases of work then commenced, including debris removal from the Usumacinta, the attachment of a valve for controlled flaring, the installation of a blow-out preventer and finally the shutting in of the well followed by killing with heavy mud and plugging with cement. By 17 December 2007, PEMEX reported complete control of the well.
There were 21 reported deaths during the evacuation of the Usumacinta, with one worker missing, presumed dead.
Deadliest Accidents
1. Piper Alpha
Occidental's Piper Alpha platform was destroyed by explosion and fire in 1988. 167 workers were killed in the blaze.
2. Alexander L. Kielland
In 1980, the accommodation rig Alexander L. Kielland capsized during a storm after a leg support brace failed.
3. Seacrest Drillship
The Seacrest drillship capsized in 1989 during Typhoon Gay, with the loss of 91 crew.
4. Ocean Ranger
A ballast control malfunction caused the Ocean Ranger to capsize during a ferocious storm in the North Atlantic in 1982, with the loss of all hands.
5. Glomar Java Sea Drillship
Another storm fatality, the Glomar Java Sea capsized and sank during Typhoon Lex in 1983 with the loss of all on board.
6. Bohai 2
In 1979, the jack-up Bohai 2 capsized and sank in a storm while on tow off the coast of China.
7. Brent Field Chinook Helicopter
A Chinook helicopter shuttle between the Brent Field and Sumburgh crashed into the North Sea in 1986 with only two survivors.
8. Enchova Central
During a blowout on the Enchova Central off Brazil, 42 workers lost their lives attempting to evacuate the platform.
9- C. P. Baker Drilling Barge
Built in 1962 using an uncommon catamaran design, the C. P. Baker drilling barge burned and sank after a shallow gas blowout.
9- Mumbai (Bombay) High North
A support vessel collided with Mumbai High North in 2005, rupturing a riser and causing a major fire that destroyed the platform.
9- Usumacinta
Storm winds caused the Usumacinta jack-up to strike the adjacent Kab-101 platform, resulting in a fatal evacuation and blowout in 2007.

Most Expensive Accidents
Cost (2002 US$)
1. Piper Alpha
Occidental's Piper Alpha platform was destroyed by explosion and fire in 1988. 167 workers were killed in the blaze.
2. Petrobras P36
In 2001, an explosion destabilised the P36 production rig in the Campos Basin, Brazil, eventually causing it to sink.
3. Enchova Central
Petrobras' Enchova PCE-1 Platform suffered twice with blowouts and fire in both 1984 and 1988, ending with the loss of the platform in 1988.
4. Sleipner A
A design error resulted in the structural failure in 1991 of the gravity base unit of the original Sleipner A platform.
5. Mississippi Canyon 311 A (Bourbon)
In 1987, the Mississippi Canyon 311 A Bourbon platform in the Gulf of Mexico was tilted to one side by an extensive underground blowout.
6. Mighty Servant 2
The Mighty Servant 2 struck a rock and sank off Indonesia whilst carrying platform modules in 1999.
7. Mumbai (Bombay) High North
A support vessel collided with Mumbai High North in 2005, rupturing a riser and causing a major fire which destroyed the platform.
$195,000,000 (2005)
8. Steelhead Platform
A blowout in 1987 led to six months of trouble for the Steelhead Platform, resulting in fire and extensive platform damage.
9. Name not known
1993: Explosion and fire destroyed a platform control room and damaged adjacent platforms on Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, with eleven fatalites.
10. Petronius A
In 1998, a crane load line broke while lifting the south topside module of the Petronius platform, dropping the module into the Gulf of Mexico.
Offshore Blowouts
Five Worst Blowouts
Volume Released
1. Sedco 135F and the IXTOC-1 Well
In 1979, the IXTOC-1 blowout flowed uncontrollably in the Bahia de Campeche, Mexico until it was capped 9 months later.
3,500,000 barrels
2. Ekofisk Bravo Platform
Phillips Petroleum's Ekofisk B platform experienced an 8-day oil and gas blowout in 1977 during a production well workover.
202,381 barrels
3. Funiwa No. 5 Well
Oil from the 1980 Funiwa 5 blowout polluted the Niger Delta for 2 weeks, followed by fire and the eventual bridging of the well.
200,000 barrels
4. Hasbah Platform Well 6
Drilled in 1980 by the Ron Tappmeyer jack-up, exploratory well No. 6 blew out in the Persian Gulf for 8 days and cost the lives of 19 men.
100,000 barrels
5. Union Oil Platform Alpha Well A-21
The 1969 Union Oil Platform A blowout lasted 11 days but continued leaking oil into the Santa Barbara Channel for months afterwards.
80,000 barrels


Other Notable Blowouts
Adriatic IV
A blowout and fire in 2004 destroyed both the Adriatic IV jack-up and Temsah gas platform off the Egyptian coast.
Al Baz
Santa Fe's Al Baz jack-up burned and sank after a blowout in 1989 with the loss of 5 lives.
5 fatalities
Arabdrill 19
A leg punch-through in 2002 led to a blowout and fire which sank both the Arabdrill 19 and a production platform in Saudi's Khafji Field.
3 fatalities
Blake IV and Greenhill Petroleum Corp. Well 250
In 1992, Greenhill Petroleum's workover oil well blew out in Timbalier Bay, igniting after 2 days and taking 11 days to cap.
Major release
C.P. Baker Drilling Barge
Built in 1962 using an uncommon catamaran design, the C. P. Baker drilling barge burned and sank after a shallow gas blowout.
22 fatalities
Enchova Central
Petrobras' Enchova Platform suffered twice with blowouts and fire in both 1984 and 1988, ending with the loss of the platform in 1988.
42 fatalities


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